.al domain hacks

A few months ago the domain soci.al was sold for 50K$ and I was wondering wethere there are any good .al domain hacks still available for registration. I know there are people looking for lists of domain hacks. (You can register .al domains at www.host.al)

I found this extensible list:

abacteri.al
abapic.al
abaxi.al
abbati.al
abdomin.al
aberration.al
abett.al
abiologic.al
abnorm.al
abomas.al
abor.al
aborigin.al
abstraction.al
abutt.al
abysm.al
abyss.al
academic.al
acaricid.al
acaud.al
accentu.al
accession.al
accessori.al
accident.al
accommodation.al
accru.al
acculturation.al
accus.al
acet.al
acheni.al
acoustic.al
acquisition.al
acquitt.al
acromi.al
acropet.al
acrosom.al
acrostic.al
actin.al
actu.al
actuari.al
adagi.al
adaptation.al
adaxi.al
addition.al
adenohypophyse.al
adenohypophysi.al
adenoid.al
adenovir.al
adhesion.al
adjectiv.al
adjustment.al
admir.al
adnex.al
adren.al
adrenocortic.al
adumbr.al
adventiti.al
adverbi.al
adversari.al
advertori.al
aeci.al
aecidi.al
aeri.al
aerobiologic.al
aerodynamic.al
aeromedic.al
aeronautic.al
aeronomic.al
aesthetic.al
aestiv.al
affection.al
affin.al
affix.al
affixi.al
agenti.al
aggregation.al
agitation.al
agon.al
agrest.al
agrichemic.al
agricultur.al
agrochemic.al
ahistoric.al
albin.al
alchemic.al
alchemistic.al
alg.al
algicid.al
algologic.al
alkaloid.al
allegoric.al
allhe.al
allodi.al
alluvi.al
alodi.al
alogic.al
alphabetic.al
alphanumeric.al
altitudin.al
altrici.al
ambassadori.al
ambisexu.al
ambrosi.al
ambulacr.al
ammon.al
ammoniac.al
amobarbit.al
amor.al
amphitheatric.al
amphor.al
amygdaloid.al
anagogic.al
anagrammatic.al
analogic.al
analytic.al
anarchic.al
anatomic.al
ancestr.al
ancon.al
ancone.al
anecdot.al
anecdotic.al
aneurysm.al
angelic.al
angin.al
anim.al
ann.al
anne.al
annexation.al
annu.al
anod.al
antenat.al
antenn.al
antenupti.al
anther.al
antheridi.al
anthologic.al
anthropic.al
anthropologic.al
antibacteri.al
anticlassic.al
anticleric.al
anticlimactic.al
anticlin.al
anticoloni.al
anticommerci.al
anticonvention.al
anticultur.al
antidiarrhe.al
antidot.al
antieducation.al
antifung.al
antihierarchic.al
antihistoric.al
antihomosexu.al
antiliber.al
antilogic.al
antimalari.al
antimetaphysic.al
antimicrobi.al
antimonarchic.al
antimoni.al
antimusic.al
antination.al
antinatur.al
antinod.al
antipap.al
antiphon.al
antipod.al
antipolitic.al
antiradic.al
antiration.al
antisentiment.al
antisexu.al
antisoci.al
antitechnologic.al
antitheoretic.al
antithetic.al
antitradition.al
antitumor.al
antivir.al
antr.al
anur.al
aort.al
apartment.al
aphrodisiac.al
apic.al
apicultur.al
apne.al
apnoe.al
apocalyptic.al
apocryph.al
apod.al
apoge.al
apolitic.al
apolog.al
apophyse.al
apotheci.al
app.al
apparition.al
appe.al
apposition.al
apprais.al
approv.al
apsid.al
apter.al
aptitudin.al
aquacultur.al
aquari.al
arbitr.al
arbitration.al
arbore.al
arboricultur.al
archae.al
archaeologic.al
archduc.al
archegoni.al
archeologic.al
archespori.al
archetyp.al
archetypic.al
archidiacon.al
archiepiscop.al
architectur.al
archiv.al
are.al
arg.al
argent.al
arithmetic.al
armiger.al
armori.al
arous.al
array.al
arrhiz.al
arriv.al
arsen.al
arsenic.al
art.al
arteri.al
artifactu.al
artifici.al
artisan.al
arv.al
ascension.al
ascetic.al
asexu.al
asoci.al
aspectu.al
aspheric.al
aspiration.al
association.al
assonant.al
astern.al
asteroid.al
astrag.al
astr.al
astrologic.al
astronautic.al
astronomic.al
astrophysic.al
asymmetric.al
atab.al
atempor.al
atheistic.al
atheoretic.al
atomic.al
aton.al
atri.al
attention.al
attitudin.al
attribution.al
attrition.al
atypic.al
auctori.al
audi.al
audiologic.al
audiovisu.al
augur.al
aur.al
auror.al
austr.al
autarchic.al
autarkic.al
autecologic.al
authori.al
autobiographic.al
autocratic.al
autosom.al
autumn.al
avifaun.al
avocation.al
avow.al
axi.al
axiologic.al
axisymmetric.al
axon.al
axonem.al
azimuth.al
azon.al
bacchan.al
backped.al
bacteri.al
bactericid.al
bacteriologic.al
balmor.al
balne.al
ban.al
baptism.al
barb.al
barbit.al
bariton.al
baroni.al
bas.al
basidi.al
basin.al
basipet.al
bathy.al
bathymetric.al
behavior.al
benefici.al
benth.al
benz.al
bequeath.al
berasc.al
besti.al
bestow.al
betray.al
betroth.al
bhar.al
biannu.al
biax.al
biaxi.al
biblic.al
bibliographic.al
bibliomaniac.al
bibliothec.al
bicamer.al
bicaud.al
bicentenni.al
bicipit.al
bicoast.al
bicondition.al
bicultur.al
bident.al
bidialect.al
bidirection.al
bienni.al
bifaci.al
bifoc.al
bifunction.al
bigemin.al
bilabi.al
bilater.al
bilharzi.al
bilingu.al
bimanu.al
bimens.al
bimet.al
bimillenni.al
bimod.al
bin.al
bination.al
binaur.al
binomi.al
biochemic.al
biocid.al
bioelectric.al
bioethic.al
biogeochemic.al
biogeographic.al
biographic.al
biologic.al
biomateri.al
biomathematic.al
biomechanic.al
biomedic.al
biometeorologic.al
biometric.al
biophysic.al
bioregion.al
biosoci.al
biostatistic.al
biotechnic.al
biotechnologic.al
biotic.al
biparent.al
biped.al
bipyramid.al
biraci.al
biradi.al
bisection.al
bisexu.al
bizon.al
blastem.al
boneme.al
bor.al
bore.al
borst.al
botanic.al
botryoid.al
botulin.al
brachi.al
bracte.al
branchi.al
brecci.al
brid.al
brom.al
bronchi.al
brum.al
brut.al
bryologic.al
bub.al
bucc.al
burgh.al
buri.al
burs.al
butyr.al
cab.al
cacographic.al
cacumin.al
cadastr.al
cadenti.al
caec.al
caesur.al
calcane.al
calculation.al
calend.al
calendric.al
caliph.al
calyce.al
cambi.al
camer.al
campestr.al
can.al
cannib.al
canonic.al
canth.al
canton.al
cantori.al
capit.al
capor.al
capsid.al
carac.al
cardin.al
cardiologic.al
caricatur.al
carin.al
carn.al
carnassi.al
carniv.al
carous.al
carp.al
carpogoni.al
cartographic.al
casu.al
casuistic.al
catachrestic.al
cataclysm.al
catameni.al
catarrh.al
catechetic.al
catechism.al
categoric.al
cathedr.al
cathod.al
caud.al
caus.al
cec.al
celesti.al
censori.al
censu.al
cent.al
centenni.al
centesim.al
centr.al
centrifug.al
centripet.al
ceram.al
cercari.al
cere.al
cerebr.al
cerebrospin.al
ceremoni.al
cervic.al
chaet.al
chalaz.al
chancroid.al
chaparr.al
characterologic.al
charco.al
chasm.al
chelicer.al
chemic.al
chemosurgic.al
chiasm.al
chimeric.al
chir.al
chirographic.al
chit.al
chlamydi.al
chlor.al
chor.al
chord.al
chordamesoderm.al
chore.al
chori.al
choroid.al
chrism.al
chromosom.al
chronobiologic.al
chronologic.al
chronometric.al
cicatrici.al
circuit.al
circumferenti.al
circumstanti.al
cistern.al
citation.al
citr.al
citronell.al
civilization.al
cladodi.al
classic.al
claus.al
claustr.al
cleric.al
client.al
climat.al
climatologic.al
clin.al
clinic.al
clinicopathologic.al
clitor.al
cloac.al
cloistr.al
clon.al
clostridi.al
clype.al
coaev.al
coast.al
coax.al
coaxi.al
cocc.al
coccyge.al
cochine.al
codicologic.al
coeducation.al
coequ.al
coetern.al
coev.al
cognition.al
cognomin.al
cohomologic.al
coincident.al
coit.al
coition.al
collater.al
collegi.al
collision.al
collocation.al
colloid.al
colloqui.al
colluvi.al
coloni.al
colorect.al
coloss.al
colostr.al
column.al
combination.al
combinatori.al
comic.al
comiti.al
commens.al
commerci.al
commissari.al
commissur.al
committ.al
commonsensic.al
commonwe.al
commun.al
communication.al
compartment.al
compensation.al
complement.al
complexion.al
componenti.al
composition.al
compression.al
computation.al
conce.al
conception.al
conceptu.al
concession.al
conch.al
conchoid.al
condensation.al
condiment.al
condition.al
conductori.al
confeder.al
conferenti.al
conferr.al
confession.al
confidenti.al
configuration.al
confirmation.al
conflictu.al
confoc.al
conform.al
conformation.al
confront.al
confrontation.al
confusion.al
conge.al
congeni.al
congenit.al
congregation.al
congression.al
conic.al
conidi.al
conjectur.al
conjug.al
conjugation.al
conjunction.al
conjunctiv.al
connatur.al
connection.al
connotation.al
connubi.al
conoid.al
consensu.al
consequenti.al
conservation.al
conservatori.al
consistori.al
consociation.al
consonant.al
conspiration.al
conspiratori.al
constitution.al
construction.al
consubstanti.al
contextu.al
continent.al
continu.al
contraction.al
contractu.al
contralater.al
contrapunt.al
controversi.al
convection.al
convention.al
conventu.al
conversation.al
conversion.al
convivi.al
convocation.al
cop.al
coprincip.al
cor.al
cordi.al
coresidenti.al
corne.al
cornme.al
cornu.al
coron.al
corpor.al
corpore.al
corr.al
correction.al
correlation.al
corriv.al
cortic.al
corynebacteri.al
coryz.al
cosmic.al
cosmochemic.al
cosmogonic.al
cosmographic.al
cosmologic.al
cost.al
cotid.al
countercommerci.al
countercultur.al
countercyclic.al
countereducation.al
counterfactu.al
counterpropos.al
covenant.al
cox.al
coxcombic.al
cra.al
crani.al
craniocerebr.al
craniofaci.al
craniosacr.al
creatur.al
cred.al
credenti.al
creed.al
crest.al
crimin.al
criminologic.al
criss.al
critic.al
cruci.al
crunod.al
crur.al
crust.al
cryobiologic.al
cryosurgic.al
crypt.al
cryptanalytic.al
cryptococc.al
cryptologic.al
cryst.al
crystalloid.al
cubic.al
cubit.al
cuboid.al
cultur.al
cune.al
curatori.al
curi.al
cursori.al
curt.al
cuspid.al
custodi.al
custum.al
cybernetic.al
cyclic.al
cycloid.al
cyclon.al
cylindric.al
cymb.al
cynic.al
cytochemic.al
cytogenetic.al
cytologic.al
cytoskelet.al
daed.al
dandiac.al
dativ.al
decad.al
dec.al
decan.al
decemvir.al
decenni.al
deception.al
decidu.al
decim.al
decision.al
declension.al
declination.al
decrement.al
decret.al
decri.al
ded.al
deferenti.al
deferr.al
definition.al
deformation.al
defray.al
deicid.al
deific.al
deistic.al
delusion.al
dementi.al
demers.al
demiurgic.al
demographic.al
demoniac.al
demonic.al
demonologic.al
demonstration.al
demurr.al
dendrochronologic.al
dendrologic.al
deni.al
denomin.al
denomination.al
dent.al
dentin.al
dentur.al
deontologic.al
department.al
depos.al
deposition.al
depriv.al
derivation.al
derm.al
dermatologic.al
dermatom.al
desmosom.al
determinant.al
detriment.al
detrit.al
deuterocanonic.al
development.al
deverb.al
devis.al
devotion.al
dextr.al
diabolic.al
diacon.al
diacritic.al
diagnostic.al
diagon.al
diagrammatic.al
dialect.al
dialectic.al
dialectologic.al
dialogic.al
diametr.al
diametric.al
diaphyse.al
diaphysi.al
diarrhe.al
diastr.al
dicrot.al
dictatori.al
diction.al
didactic.al
differenti.al
diffusion.al
difunction.al
digit.al
digression.al
dihedr.al
dilatation.al
diluvi.al
dimension.al
dioptr.al
diphtheri.al
diphthong.al
dipsomaniac.al
dipter.al
direction.al
directori.al
disapprov.al
disavow.al
disciplin.al
discographic.al
discoid.al
discrimination.al
disenthr.al
disfunction.al
disloy.al
dism.al
dismiss.al
dispensation.al
dispers.al
dispos.al
disposition.al
disproportion.al
dissertation.al
dissoci.al
dist.al
distortion.al
distribution.al
diurn.al
dividu.al
division.al
doctor.al
doctrin.al
document.al
documentation.al
dodecahedr.al
dogmatic.al
dom.al
domic.al
dominic.al
dors.al
dorsiventr.al
dorsolater.al
dorsoventr.al
doss.al
dot.al
dramaturgic.al
dropsic.al
druidic.al
duc.al
duct.al
duncic.al
duodecim.al
duoden.al
dur.al
dynamic.al
dysfunction.al
dyspne.al
ecclesi.al
ecclesiastic.al
ecclesiologic.al
ecdysi.al
ecocid.al
ecologic.al
economic.al
ecophysiologic.al
ecoton.al
ectoderm.al
ectyp.al
ecumenic.al
edict.al
editori.al
education.al
effectu.al
effigi.al
egoistic.al
egomaniac.al
egotistic.al
elector.al
electric.al
electroanalytic.al
electrochemic.al
electroderm.al
electromechanic.al
electrophysiologic.al
electrosurgic.al
electrotherm.al
elegiac.al
element.al
ellipsoid.al
elliptic.al
eluvi.al
emblematic.al
embryologic.al
embryon.al
emotion.al
empiric.al
empyre.al
emulsoid.al
encin.al
encyclic.al
endemi.al
endocardi.al
endochondr.al
endocrinologic.al
endoderm.al
endometri.al
endoskelet.al
endoste.al
endotheli.al
endotrache.al
enigmatic.al
enologic.al
enter.al
enterobacteri.al
enterococc.al
enterostom.al
enterovir.al
enthr.al
entoderm.al
entomologic.al
entozo.al
entrepreneuri.al
environment.al
epexegetic.al
ephemer.al
ephor.al
epic.al
epicardi.al
epicentr.al
epicontinent.al
epicycloid.al
epidemic.al
epidemiologic.al
epiderm.al
epididym.al
epidur.al
epifaun.al
epifoc.al
epige.al
epiglott.al
epigraphic.al
epiphenomen.al
epiphyse.al
epiphysi.al
episcop.al
episodic.al
episom.al
epistemologic.al
epitaphi.al
epitaxi.al
epitheli.al
epithetic.al
epitomic.al
epizootiologic.al
epoch.al
equ.al
equation.al
equatori.al
equilater.al
equinocti.al
equipotenti.al
equivoc.al
eremitic.al
eristic.al
erosion.al
erotic.al
erratic.al
erythrism.al
eschatologic.al
eschew.al
esophage.al
especi.al
espi.al
espous.al
essenti.al
estiv.al
estr.al
estru.al
estuari.al
etern.al
ethere.al
ethic.al
ethmoid.al
ethnic.al
ethnobotanic.al
ethnographic.al
ethnohistoric.al
ethnologic.al
ethnomusicologic.al
ethologic.al
etiologic.al
etymologic.al
eugeosynclin.al
eurytherm.al
evangelic.al
eventu.al
evidenti.al
examination.al
exarch.al
excavation.al
exception.al
excision.al
excrement.al
excret.al
executori.al
exegetic.al
exequi.al
exergu.al
existenti.al
exobiologic.al
exorcistic.al
exordi.al
exoskelet.al
exotherm.al
expansion.al
expectation.al
expedienti.al
experienti.al
experiment.al
exploration.al
exponenti.al
expos.al
exposition.al
expression.al
expurgatori.al
extempor.al
extension.al
extern.al
exterritori.al
extrachromosom.al
extracorpore.al
extracrani.al
extrajudici.al
extraleg.al
extralimit.al
extralogic.al
extramarit.al
extramur.al
extramusic.al
extrapyramid.al
extraterrestri.al
extraterritori.al
extratextu.al
exuvi.al
faci.al
faction.al
factori.al
factu.al
faec.al
falder.al
fall.al
famili.al
fanatic.al
fantastic.al
farcic.al
farf.al
fasci.al
fat.al
fatidic.al
fauc.al
fauci.al
faun.al
fe.al
fec.al
feci.al
feder.al
femor.al
fenestr.al
fer.al
feri.al
fest.al
festiv.al
fet.al
feti.al
feud.al
fiction.al
fiduci.al
figur.al
filari.al
fili.al
fimbri.al
fin.al
financi.al
fini.al
finic.al
firmament.al
fisc.al
fishme.al
fission.al
flexur.al
flor.al
floricultur.al
fluctuation.al
fluid.al
fluvi.al
fluxion.al
foc.al
foet.al
font.al
foramin.al
foraminifer.al
forbid.al
forest.al
foresti.al
form.al
fornic.al
fossori.al
foundation.al
fove.al
fract.al
fraction.al
fragment.al
fratern.al
fratricid.al
friction.al
front.al
frug.al
fucoid.al
fug.al
function.al
fundament.al
funer.al
funere.al
fung.al
fungicid.al
furfur.al
futur.al
futurologic.al
galang.al
galenic.al
gangli.al
gastr.al
gastroduoden.al
gastroenterologic.al
gastroesophage.al
gastrointestin.al
gastronomic.al
gavi.al
gay.al
gemin.al
gemologic.al
genealogic.al
gener.al
generation.al
genetic.al
geni.al
genit.al
genitiv.al
genocid.al
genotypic.al
geobotanic.al
geochemic.al
geochronologic.al
geodetic.al
geographic.al
geoid.al
geologic.al
geometric.al
geomorphologic.al
geophysic.al
geopolitic.al
geosynclin.al
geotechnic.al
geotherm.al
gerani.al
germicid.al
germin.al
gerontologic.al
gestation.al
gestic.al
gestur.al
ghari.al
gimb.al
gimm.al
ging.al
gingiv.al
glaci.al
glaciologic.al
gladiatori.al
gli.al
glob.al
gloss.al
glossari.al
glossopharynge.al
glott.al
glottochronologic.al
glute.al
gnath.al
gnomic.al
goldense.al
gomer.al
gonad.al
gonadi.al
gonidi.al
gonococc.al
gonorrhe.al
goor.al
gor.al
government.al
gra.al
gradation.al
gradu.al
grammatic.al
grandparent.al
graphic.al
graphologic.al
gravitation.al
gremi.al
gubernatori.al
gunmet.al
guttur.al
gynecologic.al
gyr.al
gyration.al
gyroid.al
habitu.al
had.al
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iatric.al
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indexic.al
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inessenti.al
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inguin.al
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oothec.al
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orphic.al
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posthospit.al
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Some of the good domains on the list are already registered, but there are still a lot of good domain hacks in between. The list contains more than 3500 domains. I have registered a few but if anyone would like to register more, I would easily recommend host.al for the .al domains.

SQL vs noSQL

There is an interesting discussion around on wether we should stick by the old Relational Databases or go with the new hype of noSQL. noSQL looks very interesting in the fact that it does not use as much resources as RDBMS, but on the other side it lacks many functionalities.
I found the video above somewhere and it is a fun and informative video about this topic.

Official whois .al domain

Apparently AKEP is working for an official whois for the .al domains.

By navigating at www.nic.al/whois the visitors can see a whois form which contains a very small amount of domains from the .al zone.

There appears to be a partial database that is updated online. Some domains return a wrong result of “no domain found”, even if they exist.

Until the completion of the official whois for the .al domains, the unofficial whois at www.host.al contains a better result.

Information Management and Information Retrieval Modules

Praxis der INformationsverabereitung und Kommunikation I was given a chance to co-author (with Prof. Dr. D. Doherr) an article for the scientific journal “Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und Kommunikation”. The article describes some innovations in the Humbold Digital Library Project in the field of Information Retrieval and Information Representation.

The article describes some methods that were used in Humboldt Digital Library to improve the findability of the information within the works of Alexander von Humboldt.

(part of the article: Section 3.1)

Internet today with the rise of new search engines like Wolfram Alpha and similar are proving that the users are no longer satisfied with Boolean search. Although algorithms like the Page Rank, HITS and similar provide great value in the results, the information that they return is purely term related. The search in those engines is handled by comparing terms for identical or similar word results (with little or no Natural Language Processing at all). This type of search can be considered a horizontal search as it is basically searching in the surface of the information without digging deeper. There exists another not yet fully revealed concept of search, referred as vertical search. The vertical search is an old concept of mining for knowledge, but is little put in practice in the public systems. The choices and the combination of the factors that influence the vertical search is very high (it can considered infinite, because knowledge includes also a random chance of discovery), therefore no system yet has fully delivered a state of art solution for this search. The sense behind the vertical search is that visitors search for topics and not for terms. By following this logic we have enhanced our digital library with a rich Information retrieval (IR) module.

The IR is the nucleus of our digital services. Usually, the visitors of a digital library are either rewarded by the riches of the options in the IR, or in an opposite scenario they are limited to what these IR module confines them to do.

Fig 1. General description of the modules of HDL
Fig 1. General description of the modules of HDL

As shown in the figure 1 the information in the Humboldt’s digital library and network is transformed in four layers.
The top layer handles the communication between the visitors and the system. Beside the Web-CMS Contrexx  which provides just a general informative module about the project (with no interest for the knowledge mining in the DL), the rest of the modules in this layer, handle continuous fetch and push operations. These operations provide the exchange of information between the system and the visitors.
It is a fact that systems serve better when they know their inhabitants. This is valid for the computer domain as well. If the system knows the background and interests of the users, then it can filter and provide them with some specific information. Based on the interests of the user, our system creates a set of statistical information about the paragraphs that may be of interest to the user, by analyzing on the experience of other users with a similar profile. By means of Personal Profiling, Personal Notes and Favorite Bookmarks, the system retrieves information about the interests of each user. In the Personal Profile section, the users may add information such as disciplines of interests, general interests and regional interests. A composition of these interests provides a cosmos for each user.

While users interact with the system through the content browsing, IR search tools or by writing personal notes related to any paragraph, they provide important feedback to the system. The system is basically learning what paragraphs are of interest to users of similar profile. The visitors of a Digital Library jump around the space of the digital library in search for the correct information. While they jump through links and documents, they leave behind disconnected traces of what they want and how they interact with the system. When these traces are connected to user profiles and user interests, they provide useful mining data that can be applied to other users who share the same preferences. The interactions of the user with the system are handled (stored and analyzed) by a Logger. The Logger retrieves the interactions of the user with the system. Based on these interactions, an algorithm provides for each user-profile, suggestions on the information that may better serve the users need. The Logger together with an algorithm for suggestions provides the Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) Engine. The CBR Engine takes in consideration: Click (Visits), User Personal Note, Editor Public Notes, Bookmarking of Paragraph Etc.
The CBR Engine stores an authority weight in the database. This authority weight is the influence weight, composed from the union of specific weights from the above options*. The Authority of Weight expresses a value of Interest for each Paragraph in the Humboldt Digital Library. Once a certain Value of Authority Weight (AW) for a specific Interest (ex: 5000) has been reached, the CBR system create notifications that the following paragraph should be suggested to the users of this specific Interest. This notification is visualized as the user navigates to the specific paragraph.

hdl2The level of relevance for each paragraph to the profile of the visitor is presented by a Heat Map. The heat map provides three levels of relevance. The levels are marked in different colors and they are an expression of relevance based on the AW/Interest value. The Heat Map represents only three top range values.
By using the colors of the Heat Map, and wrapping the Paragraphs in those colors, the system is informing the visitors that the paragraphs might be interesting to their profile.
As it can be seen from the Figure 1, the CBR stands as a bridge between the User Interface, the Services and the Storage System. The CBR together with the Natural Language Processing (NLP) serve as transforming engine in the second layer. The task of these two modules is to transform the search terms or search implications in one or multiple topics of search.
The term “Natural Language Processing” is normally used to describe the function of software or hardware components in a computer system which analyze or synthesize spoken or written language. A real translation from the human language to machine codes is handled by “Natural Language Understanding” (NLU). Implementing a full NLU System is a very challenging task which involves the work of many specialists from different science fields. The intent of this project was not the research on computational linguistics methods, but to facilitate the search of the information in the DL. By introducing the Thematic Variables like the Location, Time, Persons etc, our system can provides a simple NLP which can translate some phrases to correct queries. The set of the thematic
variables is referred as multi-variables and multi-variables search path. This is just another approach to retrieve information related to each paragraph in the Humboldt Digital library. The multivariable search path relies in additional thematic variables which are related to each paragraph. Every document or paragraph can be additionally described by a:

  • Theme
  • Time
  • Area / Location

Although Time and Location are pretty self-explanatory, the theme is a wide subject. In our normal spoken or narrative written language, we hide a lot of information. We may write a description about a country and not mention its name right away, we may speak of a person referring to him only once in the beginning of our speech, etc. The Boolean search will not provide any information in these cases, as the theme is hidden.
This is the case where the thematic variables come handy. The thematic variables provide additional information related to each paragraph in the HDL, describing what the paragraph covers in the space of individuals, scientific observations, ategory and an infinite set of options. Basically this means that for each paragraph, we have a commentary for the location where it was written and what it mentions, the date or period it describes, the people that the paragraph mentions and so on. To provide such information, for each paragraph in the HDL a separate thematic structure has been created and filled in with information from our Content Provider2 partners. More than 20 000 records of data were gathered only for the first document of Humboldt, ‘the Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent during the Years 1799-1804’.
The category theme is also important. It may contain a set of keywords which if are hit from the search engine will suggest additional paragraphs. The other aspect of the theme category is related to personal interests of the visitor of the website.

This is part of the article: “Information Management beyond Digital Libraries: Alexander von Humboldt in the Web” DOI Reference: 10.1515/piko.2009.0030. For the full article, you may follow the link http://www.reference-global.com/doi/abs/10.1515/piko.2009.0030 .

MySQL Database Replication

Replication
Replication

Kur nje projekt arrin nje fare volumi informacioni, vihet re qe nuk eshte me e lehte te administrohet databaza e tij. Ne rastin tone, Projekti i Infoarkives, (http://lajme.shqiperia.com), kaloi mbi 2.1 Giga informacion. Per kete projekt ne kishim vendosur nje server te dedikuar ne dispozicion. Megjithe sistemin e cache per te rritur performancen apo procesorin e mire, duke qene se disa here brenda dites serveri terhiqte lajme dhe i shkruante ne DB, sherbimi web u be teper i ngadalte dhe po krijonte problem.

Nga natyra, tabelat myisam jane teper te shpejta ne lexim dhe nxjerrje te informacionit, por problemi kryesor shkrimi ne databaze. Rrobotet e kerkimit terhiqnin informacion i cili shkruhet ne disa tabela dhe nje prej tyre me madhesi prej afro 2Giga. Procesi i shkrimit ne nje tabele te madhe MySQL rrezultoi teper i shtrenjte. Ne nje situate kur shkrimi zgjat disa seconda dhe vendos nje “kycje” per leximin apo indeksimin e leximeve ne DB, nga mysql krijohej nje bottleneck dhe webserveri nuk pergjigjej me shpejtesine e duhur.

Per te zgjidhur probleme te tilla ka disa skenare.

  • Shtimi i RAM ne server per te lejuar cache me te mire per mysql
  • Ndarja e tabelave te informacionit ne tabela me te vogla. Per kete do duhej kalimi ne InnoDB ku perseri kerkesat per RAM do ishin me te larta
  • Kalimi ne nje strukture no-sql, pra ruajtje statike e informacionit
  • Ndarja e sherbimit te mysql ne nje server te ndryshem nga webserveri

Megjithese kishim bere disa optimizime ne MySQL dhe ne Apache per te lehtesuar proceset e secilit, ekzekutimi i te dy ketyre sherbimeve krijonte probleme. Ne nje situate te tille, shtimi i RAM ne server (qe eshte i kushtueshem) nuk ishte nje zgjidhje afatgjate.

Fatmiresisht, MySQL lejon Replikimin e databazes. Praktikisht nje server i cilesuar si kryesori (MASTER) mund te replikohet (kopjohet) nga motorri i MySQl ne disa servera te tjere qe quhen Skllever (Slaves). Ne nje situate te tille, eshte e mundur qe serveri kryesor (master) te perdoret per shkrimin e te dhenave nga rrobotet, dhe serveri skllav mund te perdoret per leximin e te dhenave nga webserveri. Ishte kjo zgjidhja qe zgjodhem per rastin e Infoarkives, praktikisht hapat e implementimit jane me poshte.

Krijimi i Log File te MySQL

Replikimi ne MySQL funksionon mbi loget e serverit.  Ketu nuk flitet per loget normal qe tregojne logimin e userave, por logu binar i MySQL.

Logu Binar permban te gjithe komandat qe ndryshojne te dhenat ose qe mund te ndryshojne te dhenat (psh INSERT). Keto komanda (statements) ruhen ne menyre kronologjike qe pershkruajne modifikimet. Nje nga qellimet e ketij logu binar eshte pikerisht replikimi.
Per replikimet, logu binar perdoret tek serveri kryesor (master) si nje rekord i komandave qe duhet ti dergohen sklleverve. Servero kryesor i dergon ngjarjet qe ndodhen ne logun binar tek serveri skllav i cili i ekzekuton ato ne menyren kronologjike (Shih me shume: Manualin e References se MySQL).

Per te krijuar logun binar, modifikohet skedari: my.cnf (zakonisht gjendet nen /etc/my.cnf) qe te permbaje komandat me poshte:


log-bin = /var/lib/mysqllog/mysql-bin.log
binlog-do-db=db_arkivaime
server-id=1

Rrjeshti i pare komandon mySQL qe te shkruaje nje Log dhe ta shkruaje ate pikerisht ne direktorine mesiper. (Kjo direktori duhet te jete me te drejta shkrimi nga perdoruesi mysql).  Rrjeshti i dyte eshte nje reference per databazen qe do te replikohet (kujdes, replikohet nje DB dhe jo te gjitha DBte e serverit.) Ne rastin me siper po replikoj db_arkivaime. Ndersa rrjeshti i trete percakton nga nje Identifikim (unik sigurisht) te ketij serveri.  Nje identifikim unik do percaktohet pak me pas dhe tek serveri skllav.

Ne menyre qe databaza qe do replikohet te lexohet nga serveri skllav, duhet qe ne mysql te krijohet nje user i cili ka te drejta replikimi.

Ne phpmyadmin apo ne mysql console (mysql -u root -p) duhet te krijohet nje perdoures me sintaksen si me poshte:


GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'perdoruesiSkllav'@'IPjaeserveritSkllav' IDENTIFIED BY 'fjalekalimi';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Me tej, ne serverin skllav duhet te modifikohet my.cnf duke shtuar informacionin si me poshte:


server-id=2
master-host=IPeMasterServer
master-connect-retry=60
master-user=perdoruesiSkllav
master-password=fjalekalimi
replicate-do-db=db_arkivaime

relay-log = /var/lib/mysql/skllav-relay.log
relay-log-index = /var/lib/mysql/skllav-relay-log.index

Sintaksa pak a shume eshte e qarte, rrjeshti i pare percakton nje identifikim per kete server dhe i percakton atij nr 2 si emertim. Rrjeshtat me poshte tregojne perdoruesin me te cilin mund te lidhet serveri skllav me serverin kryesor dhe ne fund ka disa loge qe i duhen motorrit te MySQL per te mbajtur shenim positionin ne te cilin serveri kryesor eshte tek logs.

Ne kete cast eshte e nevojshme te ndalohet serveri kryesor dhe te kopjohet databaza aktuale ne serverin skllav (ne kete menyre te dy serverat do te nisin replikimin duke pasur te njejtin informacion). Metoda ime e preferuar eshte me rsync dhe pasi te jete krijuar dhe databaza “db_arkivaime” dhe tek serveri skllav, mund te kopjohen te gjitha te dhenat nga serveri kryesor tek serveri skllav me sintaksen me poshte:

rsync -avz -e ssh root@IPserveriKryesor:/var/lib/mysql/db_arkivaime/ /var/lib/mysql/db_arkivaime/

Sintaksa me siper, ekzekutohet ne serverin skllav dhe kopjon ne menyre binare gjithcka qe ndodhet nen /var/lib/mysql/db_arkivaime/ tek e njejta direktori ne serverin tjeter. Normalisht ky eshte path-i ku ruhen te dhenat e DBve (nje bashkesi skedaresh, .MYI, frm, MYD).

Pervec rsync (per databaza te medha), mysqldump (apo phpmyadmin dump) mund te perdoren per te kopjuar databazen nga masteri tek serveri.

Per te gjetur pozicionin e serverit kryesor ne Logs duhet te ekzekutohet (serveri duhet startuar me pare):

SHOW MASTER STATUS;

ne mysql console apo phpmyadmin te serverit Master. Pergjigja do jete dicka e tipit:

+------------------+----------+----------------+------------------+
| File             | Position | Binlog_Do_DB   | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+------------------+----------+----------------+------------------+
| mysql-bin.000003 |   199749 | db_arkivaime |                  |
+------------------+----------+----------------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Ne kete cast tek Serveri Skllav duhet te ekzekutohet:

slave stop;
CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='IPKryesor', MASTER_USER='perdoruesiSkllav', MASTER_PASSWORD='fjalekalimi', MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000003', MASTER_LOG_POS=199749;
slave start;

Pas nje restarti te serveri te slave mund te shikohet qe cdo veprim Update, Insert apo Delete ne serverin master reflektohet real time tek serveri skllav.

Implementing a Canonical URL with Zend Framework

Motivation

Unique - Courtesy Irina Souiki
Unique - Courtesy Irina Souiki

Google and the other search engines are trying to convince the webmasters to use the “what so called” Canonical URLs. The Canonical URLs will help the search engines distinguish the dublicated content which comes from different calls on the same domain. For example :

lead all to the same information, the entry point to this portal. Although a person does not care what he typed as long as he gets the information he expects, a search engine will get some(!?) confusion. The Search engine will get the same identic result, from the same domain, in 3 different URLs. Which one should the search index?!

Canonical URL Explained
Canonical URL Explained

The Canonical URL is just a simple “link tag” added to the header of your page. This link gives the owner of the page the power to tell Search Engines which one is his favourite URL for his page.

<link rel=”canonical” href=”http://www.avhumboldt.net/index.php” />

The above example is borrowed from Official Google WebMaster Central Blog and some more information on the canonical Url can be found on the article: Specify your canonical. Although the Blog of Google which is advertising this article does not include a “canonical link” (funny huh), it is a nice practice to have this feature on your website.

Implementation

If your project runs on Zend Framework, it is very easy to create canonical link by retrieving the controllers/actions and Parameters that you are using in the current URL. (And if you don’t have experience with ZF, the rest of the post will look chinese to you) If we have a closer look to the Canonical URLs, we will realize that we have to decide which domain should we use for the content to be shown. The rest of the parameters (the second part of the URLs) is the same as what it is shown on the page, in some cases we will just need to remove some arguments (like color/red/). In other words, if my URL is

http://www.avhumboldt.net/humboldt/publications/books/did/25/title/Aspects-of-Nature

or

http://avhumboldt.net/humboldt/publications/books/did/25/title/Aspects-of-Nature

I have to decide via Canonicals which one is my domain of choice and tell the Search Engines to use that one (The rest is handled by the search engine, we don’t care anymore). So all we need to do, is insert a

<link rel=”canonical” href=”http://www.avhumboldt.net/humboldt/publications/books/did/25/title/Aspects-of-Nature” />

in the header of the page. If we see the href in the canonical above, it can be divided in 2 parts, the domain name, (together with the subdirectory where I have placed my project) and the parameters which decide the content.

  1. Domain Name (+ subdirectory): www.avhumboldt.net/humboldt
  2. Parameters: /publications/books/did/25/title/Aspects-of-Nature

Since my parameters are always the same, in canonical URLs we should determine only the domain name we prefer and place the parameters afterwards. For those that are familiar with the Zend Framework MVC, the parameters of the URL are composed of /controller/action/parameters+. More information can be found in the Zend Framework Documentation. A quick solution should be by using:

“http://www.avhumboldt.net/”.$_SERVER[“REQUEST_URI”];

as the Canonical Link. The $_SERVER[“REQUEST_URI”] will return the URI which was given in order to access a page. Although this looks easy it is not recommend to anyone for use “as it is”. It will lead to some security issues with your website. (There are a lot of posts and resources out there about parameter security). A better approach to have the canonical URL is to recreate the full parameters used in the URL. This can be easily done by using Zend Frameworks Request Object. Within a Controller in Zend you can call:

$this->getRequest()->getControllerName() – to return the Controller name $this->getRequest()->getActionName() – to return the action name

and

$this->getRequest()->getParams() – to return an array with the parameters used in the URL

So we can get the Controller/Action straight forward by calling the getControllerName() and getRequestName(). We will need a little function to retrieve and place in a string all the parameters/values which are stored in the getRequest()->getParams().

public function canonicalUrl()
{
$request = Zend_Controller_Front::getInstance()->getRequest();
$filter = new Zend_Filter_Alnum(true);
$params = array();
foreach($request->getParams() as $key => $value) {
if(in_array($key, array(‘controller’, ‘action’, ‘module’))) {
continue;
}
array_push($params, $key . ‘/’ . $filter->filter($value));
}
return implode(‘/’, $params);
}

Once we have all the parameteres ordered in a /varname/value/varnam2/value… fashion, all we need to do is mix them in a Canonical URL and the best way is to create a view variable in the predispatch method of my controller:

The view variable is created for all the actions of the controller and can be accessed by any View script (those .phtml files under the view/scripts/controllername folder) Inserting them in the page is as easy as calling:

$this->headLink ()->headLink(array(’rel’ => ‘canonical’, ‘href’ => $this->canonicUrl), ‘PREPEND’);

The code above is used in the View Scripts of Zend Framework and it will create a link tag which can called from the main layout. In the Main Layout (it should be main.phtml by default) just add:

echo “nr”.$this->headLink().”nr”;

some where in the <head> section. You should have some nice canonical URLs in every page generated by your controller. A better way should be to create a plugin to have the canonical Urls for every controller, but this is what I needed so far.

List of English Stop Words

Stop Words

Stop Words are words which do not contain important significance to be used in Search Queries. Usually these words are filtered out from search queries because they return vast amount of unnecessary information. A better definition is provided below:

“Words that do not appear in the index in a particular database because they are either insignificant (i.e., articles, prepositions) or so common that the results would be higher than the system can handle (as in the case of IUCAT where terms such as United States or Department are stop words in keyword searching.) Stop words vary from system to system. Also, some systems will merely ignore stop words where use of stop words in other systems will result in retrieving zero hits. ”

http://www.iusb.edu/~libg/instruction/helpguide/handouts/2005Boolean.shtml

Since I needed to use them in a project (Humboldt Diglital Library and Network), I am posting here a list of English stop words, and below a PHP array containing these words

Here is a list of english stop words:

a
about
above
across
after
afterwards
again
against
all
almost
alone
along
already
also
although
always
am
among
amongst
amoungst
amount
an
and
another
any
anyhow
anyone
anything
anyway
anywhere
are
around
as
at
back
be
became
because
become
becomes
becoming
been
before
beforehand
behind
being
below
beside
besides
between
beyond
bill
both
bottom
but
by
call
can
cannot
cant
co
computer
con
could
couldnt
cry
de
describe
detail
do
done
down
due
during
each
eg
eight
either
eleven
else
elsewhere
empty
enough
etc
even
ever
every
everyone
everything
everywhere
except
few
fifteen
fify
fill
find
fire
first
five
for
former
formerly
forty
found
four
from
front
full
further
get
give
go
had
has
hasnt
have
he
hence
her
here
hereafter
hereby
herein
hereupon
hers
herse"
him
himse"
his
how
however
hundred
i
ie
if
in
inc
indeed
interest
into
is
it
its
itse"
keep
last
latter
latterly
least
less
ltd
made
many
may
me
meanwhile
might
mill
mine
more
moreover
most
mostly
move
much
must
my
myse"
name
namely
neither
never
nevertheless
next
nine
no
nobody
none
noone
nor
not
nothing
now
nowhere
of
off
often
on
once
one
only
onto
or
other
others
otherwise
our
ours
ourselves
out
over
own
part
per
perhaps
please
put
rather
re
same
see
seem
seemed
seeming
seems
serious
several
she
should
show
side
since
sincere
six
sixty
so
some
somehow
someone
something
sometime
sometimes
somewhere
still
such
system
take
ten
than
that
the
their
them
themselves
then
thence
there
thereafter
thereby
therefore
therein
thereupon
these
they
thick
thin
third
this
those
though
three
through
throughout
thru
thus
to
together
too
top
toward
towards
twelve
twenty
two
un
under
until
up
upon
us
very
via
was
we
well
were
what
whatever
when
whence
whenever
where
whereafter
whereas
whereby
wherein
whereupon
wherever
whether
which
while
whither
who
whoever
whole
whom
whose
why
will
with
within
without
would
yet
you
your
yours
yourself
yourselves

And here is a php array with stop words:
$stopwords = array("a", "about", "above", "above", "across", "after", "afterwards", "again", "against", "all", "almost", "alone", "along", "already", "also","although","always","am","among", "amongst", "amoungst", "amount",  "an", "and", "another", "any","anyhow","anyone","anything","anyway", "anywhere", "are", "around", "as",  "at", "back","be","became", "because","become","becomes", "becoming", "been", "before", "beforehand", "behind", "being", "below", "beside", "besides", "between", "beyond", "bill", "both", "bottom","but", "by", "call", "can", "cannot", "cant", "co", "con", "could", "couldnt", "cry", "de", "describe", "detail", "do", "done", "down", "due", "during", "each", "eg", "eight", "either", "eleven","else", "elsewhere", "empty", "enough", "etc", "even", "ever", "every", "everyone", "everything", "everywhere", "except", "few", "fifteen", "fify", "fill", "find", "fire", "first", "five", "for", "former", "formerly", "forty", "found", "four", "from", "front", "full", "further", "get", "give", "go", "had", "has", "hasnt", "have", "he", "hence", "her", "here", "hereafter", "hereby", "herein", "hereupon", "hers", "herself", "him", "himself", "his", "how", "however", "hundred", "ie", "if", "in", "inc", "indeed", "interest", "into", "is", "it", "its", "itself", "keep", "last", "latter", "latterly", "least", "less", "ltd", "made", "many", "may", "me", "meanwhile", "might", "mill", "mine", "more", "moreover", "most", "mostly", "move", "much", "must", "my", "myself", "name", "namely", "neither", "never", "nevertheless", "next", "nine", "no", "nobody", "none", "noone", "nor", "not", "nothing", "now", "nowhere", "of", "off", "often", "on", "once", "one", "only", "onto", "or", "other", "others", "otherwise", "our", "ours", "ourselves", "out", "over", "own","part", "per", "perhaps", "please", "put", "rather", "re", "same", "see", "seem", "seemed", "seeming", "seems", "serious", "several", "she", "should", "show", "side", "since", "sincere", "six", "sixty", "so", "some", "somehow", "someone", "something", "sometime", "sometimes", "somewhere", "still", "such", "system", "take", "ten", "than", "that", "the", "their", "them", "themselves", "then", "thence", "there", "thereafter", "thereby", "therefore", "therein", "thereupon", "these", "they", "thickv", "thin", "third", "this", "those", "though", "three", "through", "throughout", "thru", "thus", "to", "together", "too", "top", "toward", "towards", "twelve", "twenty", "two", "un", "under", "until", "up", "upon", "us", "very", "via", "was", "we", "well", "were", "what", "whatever", "when", "whence", "whenever", "where", "whereafter", "whereas", "whereby", "wherein", "whereupon", "wherever", "whether", "which", "while", "whither", "who", "whoever", "whole", "whom", "whose", "why", "will", "with", "within", "without", "would", "yet", "you", "your", "yours", "yourself", "yourselves", "the");

Updated October 3d, 2009.

This is the stop words list used by MySQL FullText feature

a’s, able, about, above, according, accordingly, across, actually, after, afterwards, again, against, ain’t, all, allow, allows, almost, alone, along, already, also, although, always, am, among, amongst, an, and, another, any, anybody, anyhow, anyone, anything, anyway, anyways, anywhere, apart, appear, appreciate, appropriate, are, aren’t, around, as, aside, ask, asking, associated, at, available, away, awfully, be, became, because, become, becomes, becoming, been, before, beforehand, behind, being, believe, below, beside, besides, best, better, between, beyond, both, brief, but, by, c’mon, c’s, came, can, can’t, cannot, cant, cause, causes, certain, certainly, changes, clearly, co, com, come, comes, concerning, consequently, consider, considering, contain, containing, contains, corresponding, could, couldn’t, course, currently, definitely, described, despite, did, didn’t, different, do, does, doesn’t, doing, don’t, done, down, downwards, during, each, edu, eg, eight, either, else, elsewhere, enough, entirely, especially, et, etc, even, ever, every, everybody, everyone, everything, everywhere, ex, exactly, example, except, far, few, fifth, first, five, followed, following, follows, for, former, formerly, forth, four, from, further, furthermore, get, gets, getting, given, gives, go, goes, going, gone, got, gotten, greetings, had, hadn’t, happens, hardly, has, hasn’t, have, haven’t, having, he, he’s, hello, help, hence, her, here, here’s, hereafter, hereby, herein, hereupon, hers, herself, hi, him, himself, his, hither, hopefully, how, howbeit, however, i’d, i’ll, i’m, i’ve, ie, if, ignored, immediate, in, inasmuch, inc, indeed, indicate, indicated, indicates, inner, insofar, instead, into, inward, is, isn’t, it, it’d, it’ll, it’s, its, itself, just, keep, keeps, kept, know, knows, known, last, lately, later, latter, latterly, least, less, lest, let, let’s, like, liked, likely, little, look, looking, looks, ltd, mainly, many, may, maybe, me, mean, meanwhile, merely, might, more, moreover, most, mostly, much, must, my, myself, name, namely, nd, near, nearly, necessary, need, needs, neither, never, nevertheless, new, next, nine, no, nobody, non, none, noone, nor, normally, not, nothing, novel, now, nowhere, obviously, of, off, often, oh, ok, okay, old, on, once, one, ones, only, onto, or, other, others, otherwise, ought, our, ours, ourselves, out, outside, over, overall, own, particular, particularly, per, perhaps, placed, please, plus, possible, presumably, probably, provides, que, quite, qv, rather, rd, re, really, reasonably, regarding, regardless, regards, relatively, respectively, right, said, same, saw, say, saying, says, second, secondly, see, seeing, seem, seemed, seeming, seems, seen, self, selves, sensible, sent, serious, seriously, seven, several, shall, she, should, shouldn’t, since, six, so, some, somebody, somehow, someone, something, sometime, sometimes, somewhat, somewhere, soon, sorry, specified, specify, specifying, still, sub, such, sup, sure, t’s, take, taken, tell, tends, th, than, thank, thanks, thanx, that, that’s, thats, the, their, theirs, them, themselves, then, thence, there, there’s, thereafter, thereby, therefore, therein, theres, thereupon, these, they, they’d, they’ll, they’re, they’ve, think, third, this, thorough, thoroughly, those, though, three, through, throughout, thru, thus, to, together, too, took, toward, towards, tried, tries, truly, try, trying, twice, two, un, under, unfortunately, unless, unlikely, until, unto, up, upon, us, use, used, useful, uses, using, usually, value, various, very, via, viz, vs, want, wants, was, wasn’t, way, we, we’d, we’ll, we’re, we’ve, welcome, well, went, were, weren’t, what, what’s, whatever, when, whence, whenever, where, where’s, whereafter, whereas, whereby, wherein, whereupon, wherever, whether, which, while, whither, who, who’s, whoever, whole, whom, whose, why, will, willing, wish, with, within, without, won’t, wonder, would, would, wouldn’t, yes, yet, you, you’d, you’ll, you’re, you’ve, your, yours, yourself, yourselves, zero

CSV Format

a,able,about,across,after,all,almost,also,am,among,an,and,any,are,as,at,be,because,been,but,by,can,cannot,could,dear,did,do,does,either,else,ever,every,for,from,get,got,had,has,have,he,her,hers,him,his,how,however,i,if,in,into,is,it,its,just,least,let,like,likely,may,me,might,most,must,my,neither,no,nor,not,of,off,often,on,only,or,other,our,own,rather,said,say,says,she,should,since,so,some,than,that,the,their,them,then,there,these,they,this,tis,to,too,twas,us,wants,was,we,were,what,when,where,which,while,who,whom,why,will,with,would,yet,you,your

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